Fix some issues in apps/req
[openssl.git] / apps / req.c
index 7953f9d..989a6ad 100644 (file)
@@ -1,74 +1,16 @@
-/* apps/req.c */
-/* Copyright (C) 1995-1998 Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)
- * All rights reserved.
+/*
+ * Copyright 1995-2017 The OpenSSL Project Authors. All Rights Reserved.
  *
- * This package is an SSL implementation written
- * by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com).
- * The implementation was written so as to conform with Netscapes SSL.
- * 
- * This library is free for commercial and non-commercial use as long as
- * the following conditions are aheared to.  The following conditions
- * apply to all code found in this distribution, be it the RC4, RSA,
- * lhash, DES, etc., code; not just the SSL code.  The SSL documentation
- * included with this distribution is covered by the same copyright terms
- * except that the holder is Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).
- * 
- * Copyright remains Eric Young's, and as such any Copyright notices in
- * the code are not to be removed.
- * If this package is used in a product, Eric Young should be given attribution
- * as the author of the parts of the library used.
- * This can be in the form of a textual message at program startup or
- * in documentation (online or textual) provided with the package.
- * 
- * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
- * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- * are met:
- * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the copyright
- *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
- * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
- *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
- *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
- * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
- *    must display the following acknowledgement:
- *    "This product includes cryptographic software written by
- *     Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com)"
- *    The word 'cryptographic' can be left out if the rouines from the library
- *    being used are not cryptographic related :-).
- * 4. If you include any Windows specific code (or a derivative thereof) from 
- *    the apps directory (application code) you must include an acknowledgement:
- *    "This product includes software written by Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com)"
- * 
- * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG ``AS IS'' AND
- * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
- * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
- * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
- * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
- * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
- * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
- * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
- * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
- * SUCH DAMAGE.
- * 
- * The licence and distribution terms for any publically available version or
- * derivative of this code cannot be changed.  i.e. this code cannot simply be
- * copied and put under another distribution licence
- * [including the GNU Public Licence.]
+ * Licensed under the OpenSSL license (the "License").  You may not use
+ * this file except in compliance with the License.  You can obtain a copy
+ * in the file LICENSE in the source distribution or at
+ * https://www.openssl.org/source/license.html
  */
 
-/* Until the key-gen callbacks are modified to use newer prototypes, we allow
- * deprecated functions for openssl-internal code */
-#ifdef OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED
-#undef OPENSSL_NO_DEPRECATED
-#endif
-
 #include <stdio.h>
 #include <stdlib.h>
 #include <time.h>
 #include <string.h>
-#ifdef OPENSSL_NO_STDIO
-#define APPS_WIN16
-#endif
 #include "apps.h"
 #include <openssl/bio.h>
 #include <openssl/evp.h>
 #include <openssl/pem.h>
 #include <openssl/bn.h>
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_RSA
-#include <openssl/rsa.h>
+# include <openssl/rsa.h>
 #endif
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_DSA
-#include <openssl/dsa.h>
+# include <openssl/dsa.h>
 #endif
 
-#define SECTION                "req"
-
-#define BITS           "default_bits"
-#define KEYFILE                "default_keyfile"
-#define PROMPT         "prompt"
-#define DISTINGUISHED_NAME     "distinguished_name"
-#define ATTRIBUTES     "attributes"
-#define V3_EXTENSIONS  "x509_extensions"
-#define REQ_EXTENSIONS "req_extensions"
-#define STRING_MASK    "string_mask"
-#define UTF8_IN                "utf8"
-
-#define DEFAULT_KEY_LENGTH     512
-#define MIN_KEY_LENGTH         384
-
-#undef PROG
-#define PROG   req_main
-
-/* -inform arg - input format - default PEM (DER or PEM)
- * -outform arg - output format - default PEM
- * -in arg     - input file - default stdin
- * -out arg    - output file - default stdout
- * -verify     - check request signature
- * -noout      - don't print stuff out.
- * -text       - print out human readable text.
- * -nodes      - no des encryption
- * -config file        - Load configuration file.
- * -key file   - make a request using key in file (or use it for verification).
- * -keyform arg        - key file format.
- * -rand file(s) - load the file(s) into the PRNG.
- * -newkey     - make a key and a request.
- * -modulus    - print RSA modulus.
- * -pubkey     - output Public Key.
- * -x509       - output a self signed X509 structure instead.
- * -asn1-kludge        - output new certificate request in a format that some CA's
- *               require.  This format is wrong
- */
-
-static int make_REQ(X509_REQ *req,EVP_PKEY *pkey,char *dn,int mutlirdn,
-               int attribs,unsigned long chtype);
-static int build_subject(X509_REQ *req, char *subj, unsigned long chtype,
-               int multirdn);
+#define SECTION         "req"
+
+#define BITS            "default_bits"
+#define KEYFILE         "default_keyfile"
+#define PROMPT          "prompt"
+#define DISTINGUISHED_NAME      "distinguished_name"
+#define ATTRIBUTES      "attributes"
+#define V3_EXTENSIONS   "x509_extensions"
+#define REQ_EXTENSIONS  "req_extensions"
+#define STRING_MASK     "string_mask"
+#define UTF8_IN         "utf8"
+
+#define DEFAULT_KEY_LENGTH      2048
+#define MIN_KEY_LENGTH          512
+
+static int make_REQ(X509_REQ *req, EVP_PKEY *pkey, char *dn, int mutlirdn,
+                    int attribs, unsigned long chtype);
+static int build_subject(X509_REQ *req, const char *subj, unsigned long chtype,
+                         int multirdn);
 static int prompt_info(X509_REQ *req,
-               STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *dn_sk, char *dn_sect,
-               STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr_sk, char *attr_sect, int attribs,
-               unsigned long chtype);
+                       STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *dn_sk, const char *dn_sect,
+                       STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr_sk, const char *attr_sect,
+                       int attribs, unsigned long chtype);
 static int auto_info(X509_REQ *req, STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *sk,
-                               STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr, int attribs,
-                               unsigned long chtype);
+                     STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr, int attribs,
+                     unsigned long chtype);
 static int add_attribute_object(X509_REQ *req, char *text, const char *def,
-                               char *value, int nid, int n_min,
-                               int n_max, unsigned long chtype);
-static int add_DN_object(X509_NAME *n, char *text, const char *def, char *value,
-       int nid,int n_min,int n_max, unsigned long chtype, int mval);
+                                char *value, int nid, int n_min, int n_max,
+                                unsigned long chtype);
+static int add_DN_object(X509_NAME *n, char *text, const char *def,
+                         char *value, int nid, int n_min, int n_max,
+                         unsigned long chtype, int mval);
 static int genpkey_cb(EVP_PKEY_CTX *ctx);
-static int req_check_len(int len,int n_min,int n_max);
+static int req_check_len(int len, int n_min, int n_max);
 static int check_end(const char *str, const char *end);
-static EVP_PKEY_CTX *set_keygen_ctx(BIO *err, const char *gstr, int *pkey_type,
-                                       long *pkeylen, char **palgnam,
-                                       ENGINE *keygen_engine);
-#ifndef MONOLITH
-static char *default_config_file=NULL;
-#endif
-static CONF *req_conf=NULL;
-static int batch=0;
-
-int MAIN(int, char **);
-
-int MAIN(int argc, char **argv)
-       {
-       ENGINE *e = NULL, *gen_eng = NULL;
-       unsigned long nmflag = 0, reqflag = 0;
-       int ex=1,x509=0,days=30;
-       X509 *x509ss=NULL;
-       X509_REQ *req=NULL;
-       EVP_PKEY_CTX *genctx = NULL;
-       const char *keyalg = NULL;
-       char *keyalgstr = NULL;
-       STACK *pkeyopts = NULL;
-       EVP_PKEY *pkey=NULL;
-       int i=0,badops=0,newreq=0,verbose=0,pkey_type=-1;
-       long newkey = -1;
-       BIO *in=NULL,*out=NULL;
-       int informat,outformat,verify=0,noout=0,text=0,keyform=FORMAT_PEM;
-       int nodes=0,kludge=0,newhdr=0,subject=0,pubkey=0;
-       char *infile,*outfile,*prog,*keyfile=NULL,*template=NULL,*keyout=NULL;
+static int join(char buf[], size_t buf_size, const char *name,
+                const char *tail, const char *desc);
+static EVP_PKEY_CTX *set_keygen_ctx(const char *gstr,
+                                    int *pkey_type, long *pkeylen,
+                                    char **palgnam, ENGINE *keygen_engine);
+static CONF *req_conf = NULL;
+static int batch = 0;
+
+typedef enum OPTION_choice {
+    OPT_ERR = -1, OPT_EOF = 0, OPT_HELP,
+    OPT_INFORM, OPT_OUTFORM, OPT_ENGINE, OPT_KEYGEN_ENGINE, OPT_KEY,
+    OPT_PUBKEY, OPT_NEW, OPT_CONFIG, OPT_KEYFORM, OPT_IN, OPT_OUT,
+    OPT_KEYOUT, OPT_PASSIN, OPT_PASSOUT, OPT_NEWKEY,
+    OPT_PKEYOPT, OPT_SIGOPT, OPT_BATCH, OPT_NEWHDR, OPT_MODULUS,
+    OPT_VERIFY, OPT_NODES, OPT_NOOUT, OPT_VERBOSE, OPT_UTF8,
+    OPT_NAMEOPT, OPT_REQOPT, OPT_SUBJ, OPT_SUBJECT, OPT_TEXT, OPT_X509,
+    OPT_MULTIVALUE_RDN, OPT_DAYS, OPT_SET_SERIAL, OPT_EXTENSIONS,
+    OPT_REQEXTS, OPT_PRECERT, OPT_MD,
+    OPT_R_ENUM
+} OPTION_CHOICE;
+
+const OPTIONS req_options[] = {
+    {"help", OPT_HELP, '-', "Display this summary"},
+    {"inform", OPT_INFORM, 'F', "Input format - DER or PEM"},
+    {"outform", OPT_OUTFORM, 'F', "Output format - DER or PEM"},
+    {"in", OPT_IN, '<', "Input file"},
+    {"out", OPT_OUT, '>', "Output file"},
+    {"key", OPT_KEY, 's', "Private key to use"},
+    {"keyform", OPT_KEYFORM, 'f', "Key file format"},
+    {"pubkey", OPT_PUBKEY, '-', "Output public key"},
+    {"new", OPT_NEW, '-', "New request"},
+    {"config", OPT_CONFIG, '<', "Request template file"},
+    {"keyout", OPT_KEYOUT, '>', "File to send the key to"},
+    {"passin", OPT_PASSIN, 's', "Private key password source"},
+    {"passout", OPT_PASSOUT, 's', "Output file pass phrase source"},
+    OPT_R_OPTIONS,
+    {"newkey", OPT_NEWKEY, 's', "Specify as type:bits"},
+    {"pkeyopt", OPT_PKEYOPT, 's', "Public key options as opt:value"},
+    {"sigopt", OPT_SIGOPT, 's', "Signature parameter in n:v form"},
+    {"batch", OPT_BATCH, '-',
+     "Do not ask anything during request generation"},
+    {"newhdr", OPT_NEWHDR, '-', "Output \"NEW\" in the header lines"},
+    {"modulus", OPT_MODULUS, '-', "RSA modulus"},
+    {"verify", OPT_VERIFY, '-', "Verify signature on REQ"},
+    {"nodes", OPT_NODES, '-', "Don't encrypt the output key"},
+    {"noout", OPT_NOOUT, '-', "Do not output REQ"},
+    {"verbose", OPT_VERBOSE, '-', "Verbose output"},
+    {"utf8", OPT_UTF8, '-', "Input characters are UTF8 (default ASCII)"},
+    {"nameopt", OPT_NAMEOPT, 's', "Various certificate name options"},
+    {"reqopt", OPT_REQOPT, 's', "Various request text options"},
+    {"text", OPT_TEXT, '-', "Text form of request"},
+    {"x509", OPT_X509, '-',
+     "Output a x509 structure instead of a cert request"},
+    {OPT_MORE_STR, 1, 1, "(Required by some CA's)"},
+    {"subj", OPT_SUBJ, 's', "Set or modify request subject"},
+    {"subject", OPT_SUBJECT, '-', "Output the request's subject"},
+    {"multivalue-rdn", OPT_MULTIVALUE_RDN, '-',
+     "Enable support for multivalued RDNs"},
+    {"days", OPT_DAYS, 'p', "Number of days cert is valid for"},
+    {"set_serial", OPT_SET_SERIAL, 's', "Serial number to use"},
+    {"extensions", OPT_EXTENSIONS, 's',
+     "Cert extension section (override value in config file)"},
+    {"reqexts", OPT_REQEXTS, 's',
+     "Request extension section (override value in config file)"},
+    {"precert", OPT_PRECERT, '-', "Add a poison extension (implies -new)"},
+    {"", OPT_MD, '-', "Any supported digest"},
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE
-       char *engine=NULL;
-#endif
-       char *extensions = NULL;
-       char *req_exts = NULL;
-       const EVP_CIPHER *cipher=NULL;
-       ASN1_INTEGER *serial = NULL;
-       int modulus=0;
-       char *inrand=NULL;
-       char *passargin = NULL, *passargout = NULL;
-       char *passin = NULL, *passout = NULL;
-       char *p;
-       char *subj = NULL;
-       int multirdn = 0;
-       const EVP_MD *md_alg=NULL,*digest=NULL;
-       unsigned long chtype = MBSTRING_ASC;
-#ifndef MONOLITH
-       char *to_free;
-       long errline;
+    {"engine", OPT_ENGINE, 's', "Use engine, possibly a hardware device"},
+    {"keygen_engine", OPT_KEYGEN_ENGINE, 's',
+     "Specify engine to be used for key generation operations"},
 #endif
+    {NULL}
+};
+
+int req_main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+    ASN1_INTEGER *serial = NULL;
+    BIO *in = NULL, *out = NULL;
+    ENGINE *e = NULL, *gen_eng = NULL;
+    EVP_PKEY *pkey = NULL;
+    EVP_PKEY_CTX *genctx = NULL;
+    STACK_OF(OPENSSL_STRING) *pkeyopts = NULL, *sigopts = NULL;
+    X509 *x509ss = NULL;
+    X509_REQ *req = NULL;
+    const EVP_CIPHER *cipher = NULL;
+    const EVP_MD *md_alg = NULL, *digest = NULL;
+    char *extensions = NULL, *infile = NULL;
+    char *outfile = NULL, *keyfile = NULL;
+    char *keyalgstr = NULL, *p, *prog, *passargin = NULL, *passargout = NULL;
+    char *passin = NULL, *passout = NULL;
+    char *nofree_passin = NULL, *nofree_passout = NULL;
+    char *req_exts = NULL, *subj = NULL;
+    char *template = default_config_file, *keyout = NULL;
+    const char *keyalg = NULL;
+    OPTION_CHOICE o;
+    int ret = 1, x509 = 0, days = 0, i = 0, newreq = 0, verbose = 0;
+    int pkey_type = -1, private = 0;
+    int informat = FORMAT_PEM, outformat = FORMAT_PEM, keyform = FORMAT_PEM;
+    int modulus = 0, multirdn = 0, verify = 0, noout = 0, text = 0;
+    int nodes = 0, newhdr = 0, subject = 0, pubkey = 0, precert = 0;
+    long newkey = -1;
+    unsigned long chtype = MBSTRING_ASC, reqflag = 0;
 
-       req_conf = NULL;
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_DES
-       cipher=EVP_des_ede3_cbc();
-#endif
-       apps_startup();
-
-       if (bio_err == NULL)
-               if ((bio_err=BIO_new(BIO_s_file())) != NULL)
-                       BIO_set_fp(bio_err,stderr,BIO_NOCLOSE|BIO_FP_TEXT);
-
-       infile=NULL;
-       outfile=NULL;
-       informat=FORMAT_PEM;
-       outformat=FORMAT_PEM;
-
-       prog=argv[0];
-       argc--;
-       argv++;
-       while (argc >= 1)
-               {
-               if      (strcmp(*argv,"-inform") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       informat=str2fmt(*(++argv));
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-outform") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       outformat=str2fmt(*(++argv));
-                       }
-#ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-engine") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       engine= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-keygen_engine") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       gen_eng = ENGINE_by_id(*(++argv));
-                       if (gen_eng == NULL)
-                               {
-                               BIO_printf(bio_err, "Can't find keygen engine %s\n", *argv);
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       }
-#endif
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-key") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       keyfile= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-pubkey") == 0)
-                       {
-                       pubkey=1;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-new") == 0)
-                       {
-                       newreq=1;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-config") == 0)
-                       {       
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       template= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-keyform") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       keyform=str2fmt(*(++argv));
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-in") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       infile= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-out") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       outfile= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-keyout") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       keyout= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-passin") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       passargin= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-passout") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       passargout= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-rand") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       inrand= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-newkey") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1)
-                               goto bad;
-                       keyalg = *(++argv);
-                       newreq=1;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-pkeyopt") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1)
-                               goto bad;
-                       if (!pkeyopts)
-                               pkeyopts = sk_new_null();
-                       if (!pkeyopts || !sk_push(pkeyopts, *(++argv)))
-                               goto bad;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-batch") == 0)
-                       batch=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-newhdr") == 0)
-                       newhdr=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-modulus") == 0)
-                       modulus=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-verify") == 0)
-                       verify=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-nodes") == 0)
-                       nodes=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-noout") == 0)
-                       noout=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-verbose") == 0)
-                       verbose=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-utf8") == 0)
-                       chtype = MBSTRING_UTF8;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-nameopt") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       if (!set_name_ex(&nmflag, *(++argv))) goto bad;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-reqopt") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       if (!set_cert_ex(&reqflag, *(++argv))) goto bad;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-subject") == 0)
-                       subject=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-text") == 0)
-                       text=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-x509") == 0)
-                       x509=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-asn1-kludge") == 0)
-                       kludge=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-no-asn1-kludge") == 0)
-                       kludge=0;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-subj") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       subj= *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-multivalue-rdn") == 0)
-                       multirdn=1;
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-days") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       days= atoi(*(++argv));
-                       if (days == 0) days=30;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-set_serial") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       serial = s2i_ASN1_INTEGER(NULL, *(++argv));
-                       if (!serial) goto bad;
-                       }
-               else if ((md_alg=EVP_get_digestbyname(&((*argv)[1]))) != NULL)
-                       {
-                       /* ok */
-                       digest=md_alg;
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-extensions") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       extensions = *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else if (strcmp(*argv,"-reqexts") == 0)
-                       {
-                       if (--argc < 1) goto bad;
-                       req_exts = *(++argv);
-                       }
-               else
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"unknown option %s\n",*argv);
-                       badops=1;
-                       break;
-                       }
-               argc--;
-               argv++;
-               }
-
-       if (badops)
-               {
-bad:
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"%s [options] <infile >outfile\n",prog);
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"where options  are\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -inform arg    input format - DER or PEM\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -outform arg   output format - DER or PEM\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -in arg        input file\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -out arg       output file\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -text          text form of request\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -pubkey        output public key\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -noout         do not output REQ\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -verify        verify signature on REQ\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -modulus       RSA modulus\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -nodes         don't encrypt the output key\n");
-#ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -engine e      use engine e, possibly a hardware device\n");
-#endif
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -subject       output the request's subject\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -passin        private key password source\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -key file      use the private key contained in file\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -keyform arg   key file format\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -keyout arg    file to send the key to\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -rand file%cfile%c...\n", LIST_SEPARATOR_CHAR, LIST_SEPARATOR_CHAR);
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"                load the file (or the files in the directory) into\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"                the random number generator\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -newkey rsa:bits generate a new RSA key of 'bits' in size\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -newkey dsa:file generate a new DSA key, parameters taken from CA in 'file'\n");
-#ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ECDSA
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -newkey ec:file generate a new EC key, parameters taken from CA in 'file'\n");
+    cipher = EVP_des_ede3_cbc();
 #endif
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -[digest]      Digest to sign with (md5, sha1, md2, mdc2, md4)\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -config file   request template file.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -subj arg      set or modify request subject\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -multivalue-rdn enable support for multivalued RDNs\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -new           new request.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -batch         do not ask anything during request generation\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -x509          output a x509 structure instead of a cert. req.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -days          number of days a certificate generated by -x509 is valid for.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -set_serial    serial number to use for a certificate generated by -x509.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -newhdr        output \"NEW\" in the header lines\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -asn1-kludge   Output the 'request' in a format that is wrong but some CA's\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"                have been reported as requiring\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -extensions .. specify certificate extension section (override value in config file)\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -reqexts ..    specify request extension section (override value in config file)\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -utf8          input characters are UTF8 (default ASCII)\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -nameopt arg    - various certificate name options\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err," -reqopt arg    - various request text options\n\n");
-               goto end;
-               }
-
-       ERR_load_crypto_strings();
-       if(!app_passwd(bio_err, passargin, passargout, &passin, &passout)) {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error getting passwords\n");
-               goto end;
-       }
-
-#ifndef MONOLITH /* else this has happened in openssl.c (global `config') */
-       /* Lets load up our environment a little */
-       p=getenv("OPENSSL_CONF");
-       if (p == NULL)
-               p=getenv("SSLEAY_CONF");
-       if (p == NULL)
-               p=to_free=make_config_name();
-       default_config_file=p;
-       config=NCONF_new(NULL);
-       i=NCONF_load(config, p, &errline);
-#endif
-
-       if (template != NULL)
-               {
-               long errline = -1;
-
-               if( verbose )
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"Using configuration from %s\n",template);
-               req_conf=NCONF_new(NULL);
-               i=NCONF_load(req_conf,template,&errline);
-               if (i == 0)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"error on line %ld of %s\n",errline,template);
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               }
-       else
-               {
-               req_conf=config;
-
-               if (req_conf == NULL)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"Unable to load config info from %s\n", default_config_file);
-                       if (newreq)
-                               goto end;
-                       }
-               else if( verbose )
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"Using configuration from %s\n",
-                       default_config_file);
-               }
-
-       if (req_conf != NULL)
-               {
-               if (!load_config(bio_err, req_conf))
-                       goto end;
-               p=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,NULL,"oid_file");
-               if (p == NULL)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               if (p != NULL)
-                       {
-                       BIO *oid_bio;
-
-                       oid_bio=BIO_new_file(p,"r");
-                       if (oid_bio == NULL) 
-                               {
-                               /*
-                               BIO_printf(bio_err,"problems opening %s for extra oid's\n",p);
-                               ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-                               */
-                               }
-                       else
-                               {
-                               OBJ_create_objects(oid_bio);
-                               BIO_free(oid_bio);
-                               }
-                       }
-               }
-       if(!add_oid_section(bio_err, req_conf)) goto end;
-
-       if (md_alg == NULL)
-               {
-               p=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,"default_md");
-               if (p == NULL)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               if (p != NULL)
-                       {
-                       if ((md_alg=EVP_get_digestbyname(p)) != NULL)
-                               digest=md_alg;
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (!extensions)
-               {
-               extensions = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, V3_EXTENSIONS);
-               if (!extensions)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               }
-       if (extensions) {
-               /* Check syntax of file */
-               X509V3_CTX ctx;
-               X509V3_set_ctx_test(&ctx);
-               X509V3_set_nconf(&ctx, req_conf);
-               if(!X509V3_EXT_add_nconf(req_conf, &ctx, extensions, NULL)) {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,
-                        "Error Loading extension section %s\n", extensions);
-                       goto end;
-               }
-       }
-
-       if(!passin)
-               {
-               passin = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, "input_password");
-               if (!passin)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               }
-       
-       if(!passout)
-               {
-               passout = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, "output_password");
-               if (!passout)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               }
-
-       p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, STRING_MASK);
-       if (!p)
-               ERR_clear_error();
-
-       if(p && !ASN1_STRING_set_default_mask_asc(p)) {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err, "Invalid global string mask setting %s\n", p);
-               goto end;
-       }
-
-       if (chtype != MBSTRING_UTF8)
-               {
-               p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, UTF8_IN);
-               if (!p)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               else if (!strcmp(p, "yes"))
-                       chtype = MBSTRING_UTF8;
-               }
-
-
-       if(!req_exts)
-               {
-               req_exts = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, REQ_EXTENSIONS);
-               if (!req_exts)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               }
-       if(req_exts) {
-               /* Check syntax of file */
-               X509V3_CTX ctx;
-               X509V3_set_ctx_test(&ctx);
-               X509V3_set_nconf(&ctx, req_conf);
-               if(!X509V3_EXT_add_nconf(req_conf, &ctx, req_exts, NULL)) {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,
-                        "Error Loading request extension section %s\n",
-                                                               req_exts);
-                       goto end;
-               }
-       }
-
-       in=BIO_new(BIO_s_file());
-       out=BIO_new(BIO_s_file());
-       if ((in == NULL) || (out == NULL))
-               goto end;
 
+    prog = opt_init(argc, argv, req_options);
+    while ((o = opt_next()) != OPT_EOF) {
+        switch (o) {
+        case OPT_EOF:
+        case OPT_ERR:
+ opthelp:
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "%s: Use -help for summary.\n", prog);
+            goto end;
+        case OPT_HELP:
+            opt_help(req_options);
+            ret = 0;
+            goto end;
+        case OPT_INFORM:
+            if (!opt_format(opt_arg(), OPT_FMT_PEMDER, &informat))
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_OUTFORM:
+            if (!opt_format(opt_arg(), OPT_FMT_PEMDER, &outformat))
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_ENGINE:
+            e = setup_engine(opt_arg(), 0);
+            break;
+        case OPT_KEYGEN_ENGINE:
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE
-        e = setup_engine(bio_err, engine, 0);
+            gen_eng = ENGINE_by_id(opt_arg());
+            if (gen_eng == NULL) {
+                BIO_printf(bio_err, "Can't find keygen engine %s\n", *argv);
+                goto opthelp;
+            }
 #endif
-
-       if (keyfile != NULL)
-               {
-               pkey = load_key(bio_err, keyfile, keyform, 0, passin, e,
-                       "Private Key");
-               if (!pkey)
-                       {
-                       /* load_key() has already printed an appropriate
-                          message */
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               else
-                       {
-                       char *randfile = NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,"RANDFILE");
-                       if (randfile == NULL)
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                       app_RAND_load_file(randfile, bio_err, 0);
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (newreq && (pkey == NULL))
-               {
-               char *randfile = NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,"RANDFILE");
-               if (randfile == NULL)
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-               app_RAND_load_file(randfile, bio_err, 0);
-               if (inrand)
-                       app_RAND_load_files(inrand);
-
-               if (keyalg)
-                       {
-                       genctx = set_keygen_ctx(bio_err, keyalg, &pkey_type, &newkey,
-                                                       &keyalgstr, gen_eng);
-                       if (!genctx)
-                               goto end;
-                       }
-       
-               if (newkey <= 0)
-                       {
-                       if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf,SECTION,BITS, &newkey))
-                               newkey=DEFAULT_KEY_LENGTH;
-                       }
-
-               if (newkey < MIN_KEY_LENGTH && (pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_RSA || pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_DSA))
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"private key length is too short,\n");
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"it needs to be at least %d bits, not %ld\n",MIN_KEY_LENGTH,newkey);
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-
-               if (!genctx)
-                       {
-                       genctx = set_keygen_ctx(bio_err, NULL, &pkey_type, &newkey,
-                                                       &keyalgstr, gen_eng);
-                       if (!genctx)
-                               goto end;
-                       }
-
-               if (pkeyopts)
-                       {
-                       char *genopt;
-                       for (i = 0; i < sk_num(pkeyopts); i++)
-                               {
-                               genopt = sk_value(pkeyopts, i);
-                               if (pkey_ctrl_string(genctx, genopt) <= 0)
-                                       {
-                                       BIO_printf(bio_err,
-                                               "parameter error \"%s\"\n",
-                                               genopt);
-                                       ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-                                       goto end;
-                                       }
-                               }
-                       }
-
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"Generating a %ld bit %s private key\n",
-                               newkey, keyalgstr);
-
-               EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_cb(genctx, genpkey_cb);
-               EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_app_data(genctx, bio_err);
-
-               if (EVP_PKEY_keygen(genctx, &pkey) <= 0)
-                       {
-                       BIO_puts(bio_err, "Error Generating Key\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-
-               EVP_PKEY_CTX_free(genctx);
-               genctx = NULL;
-
-               app_RAND_write_file(randfile, bio_err);
-
-               if (keyout == NULL)
-                       {
-                       keyout=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,KEYFILE);
-                       if (keyout == NULL)
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                       }
-               
-               if (keyout == NULL)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"writing new private key to stdout\n");
-                       BIO_set_fp(out,stdout,BIO_NOCLOSE);
-#ifdef OPENSSL_SYS_VMS
-                       {
-                       BIO *tmpbio = BIO_new(BIO_f_linebuffer());
-                       out = BIO_push(tmpbio, out);
-                       }
-#endif
-                       }
-               else
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"writing new private key to '%s'\n",keyout);
-                       if (BIO_write_filename(out,keyout) <= 0)
-                               {
-                               perror(keyout);
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       }
-
-               p=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,"encrypt_rsa_key");
-               if (p == NULL)
-                       {
-                       ERR_clear_error();
-                       p=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,"encrypt_key");
-                       if (p == NULL)
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                       }
-               if ((p != NULL) && (strcmp(p,"no") == 0))
-                       cipher=NULL;
-               if (nodes) cipher=NULL;
-               
-               i=0;
-loop:
-               if (!PEM_write_bio_PrivateKey(out,pkey,cipher,
-                       NULL,0,NULL,passout))
-                       {
-                       if ((ERR_GET_REASON(ERR_peek_error()) ==
-                               PEM_R_PROBLEMS_GETTING_PASSWORD) && (i < 3))
-                               {
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                               i++;
-                               goto loop;
-                               }
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"-----\n");
-               }
-
-       if (!newreq)
-               {
-               /* Since we are using a pre-existing certificate
-                * request, the kludge 'format' info should not be
-                * changed. */
-               kludge= -1;
-               if (infile == NULL)
-                       BIO_set_fp(in,stdin,BIO_NOCLOSE);
-               else
-                       {
-                       if (BIO_read_filename(in,infile) <= 0)
-                               {
-                               perror(infile);
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       }
-
-               if      (informat == FORMAT_ASN1)
-                       req=d2i_X509_REQ_bio(in,NULL);
-               else if (informat == FORMAT_PEM)
-                       req=PEM_read_bio_X509_REQ(in,NULL,NULL,NULL);
-               else
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"bad input format specified for X509 request\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               if (req == NULL)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"unable to load X509 request\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (newreq || x509)
-               {
-               if (pkey == NULL)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"you need to specify a private key\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-
-               if (req == NULL)
-                       {
-                       req=X509_REQ_new();
-                       if (req == NULL)
-                               {
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-
-                       i=make_REQ(req,pkey,subj,multirdn,!x509, chtype);
-                       subj=NULL; /* done processing '-subj' option */
-                       if ((kludge > 0) && !sk_X509_ATTRIBUTE_num(req->req_info->attributes))
-                               {
-                               sk_X509_ATTRIBUTE_free(req->req_info->attributes);
-                               req->req_info->attributes = NULL;
-                               }
-                       if (!i)
-                               {
-                               BIO_printf(bio_err,"problems making Certificate Request\n");
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       }
-               if (x509)
-                       {
-                       EVP_PKEY *tmppkey;
-                       X509V3_CTX ext_ctx;
-                       if ((x509ss=X509_new()) == NULL) goto end;
-
-                       /* Set version to V3 */
-                       if(extensions && !X509_set_version(x509ss, 2)) goto end;
-                       if (serial)
-                               {
-                               if (!X509_set_serialNumber(x509ss, serial)) goto end;
-                               }
-                       else
-                               {
-                               if (!rand_serial(NULL,
-                                       X509_get_serialNumber(x509ss)))
-                                               goto end;
-                               }
-
-                       if (!X509_set_issuer_name(x509ss, X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req))) goto end;
-                       if (!X509_gmtime_adj(X509_get_notBefore(x509ss),0)) goto end;
-                       if (!X509_gmtime_adj(X509_get_notAfter(x509ss), (long)60*60*24*days)) goto end;
-                       if (!X509_set_subject_name(x509ss, X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req))) goto end;
-                       tmppkey = X509_REQ_get_pubkey(req);
-                       if (!tmppkey || !X509_set_pubkey(x509ss,tmppkey)) goto end;
-                       EVP_PKEY_free(tmppkey);
-
-                       /* Set up V3 context struct */
-
-                       X509V3_set_ctx(&ext_ctx, x509ss, x509ss, NULL, NULL, 0);
-                       X509V3_set_nconf(&ext_ctx, req_conf);
-
-                       /* Add extensions */
-                       if(extensions && !X509V3_EXT_add_nconf(req_conf, 
-                                       &ext_ctx, extensions, x509ss))
-                               {
-                               BIO_printf(bio_err,
-                                       "Error Loading extension section %s\n",
-                                       extensions);
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       
-                       if (!(i=X509_sign(x509ss,pkey,digest)))
-                               {
-                               ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       }
-               else
-                       {
-                       X509V3_CTX ext_ctx;
-
-                       /* Set up V3 context struct */
-
-                       X509V3_set_ctx(&ext_ctx, NULL, NULL, req, NULL, 0);
-                       X509V3_set_nconf(&ext_ctx, req_conf);
-
-                       /* Add extensions */
-                       if(req_exts && !X509V3_EXT_REQ_add_nconf(req_conf, 
-                                       &ext_ctx, req_exts, req))
-                               {
-                               BIO_printf(bio_err,
-                                       "Error Loading extension section %s\n",
-                                       req_exts);
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       if (!(i=X509_REQ_sign(req,pkey,digest)))
-                               {
-                               ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-                               goto end;
-                               }
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (subj && x509)
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err, "Cannot modifiy certificate subject\n");
-               goto end;
-               }
-
-       if (subj && !x509)
-               {
-               if (verbose)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err, "Modifying Request's Subject\n");
-                       print_name(bio_err, "old subject=", X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req), nmflag);
-                       }
-
-               if (build_subject(req, subj, chtype, multirdn) == 0)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err, "ERROR: cannot modify subject\n");
-                       ex=1;
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-
-               req->req_info->enc.modified = 1;
-
-               if (verbose)
-                       {
-                       print_name(bio_err, "new subject=", X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req), nmflag);
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (verify && !x509)
-               {
-               int tmp=0;
-
-               if (pkey == NULL)
-                       {
-                       pkey=X509_REQ_get_pubkey(req);
-                       tmp=1;
-                       if (pkey == NULL) goto end;
-                       }
-
-               i=X509_REQ_verify(req,pkey);
-               if (tmp) {
-                       EVP_PKEY_free(pkey);
-                       pkey=NULL;
-               }
-
-               if (i < 0)
-                       {
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               else if (i == 0)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"verify failure\n");
-                       ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-                       }
-               else /* if (i > 0) */
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"verify OK\n");
-               }
-
-       if (noout && !text && !modulus && !subject && !pubkey)
-               {
-               ex=0;
-               goto end;
-               }
-
-       if (outfile == NULL)
-               {
-               BIO_set_fp(out,stdout,BIO_NOCLOSE);
-#ifdef OPENSSL_SYS_VMS
-               {
-               BIO *tmpbio = BIO_new(BIO_f_linebuffer());
-               out = BIO_push(tmpbio, out);
-               }
-#endif
-               }
-       else
-               {
-               if ((keyout != NULL) && (strcmp(outfile,keyout) == 0))
-                       i=(int)BIO_append_filename(out,outfile);
-               else
-                       i=(int)BIO_write_filename(out,outfile);
-               if (!i)
-                       {
-                       perror(outfile);
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (pubkey)
-               {
-               EVP_PKEY *tpubkey; 
-               tpubkey=X509_REQ_get_pubkey(req);
-               if (tpubkey == NULL)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"Error getting public key\n");
-                       ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               PEM_write_bio_PUBKEY(out, tpubkey);
-               EVP_PKEY_free(tpubkey);
-               }
-
-       if (text)
-               {
-               if (x509)
-                       X509_print_ex(out, x509ss, nmflag, reqflag);
-               else    
-                       X509_REQ_print_ex(out, req, nmflag, reqflag);
-               }
-
-       if(subject) 
-               {
-               if(x509)
-                       print_name(out, "subject=", X509_get_subject_name(x509ss), nmflag);
-               else
-                       print_name(out, "subject=", X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req), nmflag);
-               }
-
-       if (modulus)
-               {
-               EVP_PKEY *tpubkey;
-
-               if (x509)
-                       tpubkey=X509_get_pubkey(x509ss);
-               else
-                       tpubkey=X509_REQ_get_pubkey(req);
-               if (tpubkey == NULL)
-                       {
-                       fprintf(stdout,"Modulus=unavailable\n");
-                       goto end; 
-                       }
-               fprintf(stdout,"Modulus=");
+            break;
+        case OPT_KEY:
+            keyfile = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_PUBKEY:
+            pubkey = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_NEW:
+            newreq = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_CONFIG:
+            template = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_KEYFORM:
+            if (!opt_format(opt_arg(), OPT_FMT_ANY, &keyform))
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_IN:
+            infile = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_OUT:
+            outfile = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_KEYOUT:
+            keyout = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_PASSIN:
+            passargin = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_PASSOUT:
+            passargout = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_R_CASES:
+            if (!opt_rand(o))
+                goto end;
+            break;
+        case OPT_NEWKEY:
+            keyalg = opt_arg();
+            newreq = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_PKEYOPT:
+            if (!pkeyopts)
+                pkeyopts = sk_OPENSSL_STRING_new_null();
+            if (!pkeyopts || !sk_OPENSSL_STRING_push(pkeyopts, opt_arg()))
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_SIGOPT:
+            if (!sigopts)
+                sigopts = sk_OPENSSL_STRING_new_null();
+            if (!sigopts || !sk_OPENSSL_STRING_push(sigopts, opt_arg()))
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_BATCH:
+            batch = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_NEWHDR:
+            newhdr = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_MODULUS:
+            modulus = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_VERIFY:
+            verify = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_NODES:
+            nodes = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_NOOUT:
+            noout = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_VERBOSE:
+            verbose = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_UTF8:
+            chtype = MBSTRING_UTF8;
+            break;
+        case OPT_NAMEOPT:
+            if (!set_nameopt(opt_arg()))
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_REQOPT:
+            if (!set_cert_ex(&reqflag, opt_arg()))
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_TEXT:
+            text = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_X509:
+            x509 = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_DAYS:
+            days = atoi(opt_arg());
+            break;
+        case OPT_SET_SERIAL:
+            if (serial != NULL) {
+                BIO_printf(bio_err, "Serial number supplied twice\n");
+                goto opthelp;
+            }
+            serial = s2i_ASN1_INTEGER(NULL, opt_arg());
+            if (serial == NULL)
+                goto opthelp;
+            break;
+        case OPT_SUBJECT:
+            subject = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_SUBJ:
+            subj = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_MULTIVALUE_RDN:
+            multirdn = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_EXTENSIONS:
+            extensions = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_REQEXTS:
+            req_exts = opt_arg();
+            break;
+        case OPT_PRECERT:
+            newreq = precert = 1;
+            break;
+        case OPT_MD:
+            if (!opt_md(opt_unknown(), &md_alg))
+                goto opthelp;
+            digest = md_alg;
+            break;
+        }
+    }
+    argc = opt_num_rest();
+    if (argc != 0)
+        goto opthelp;
+
+    if (days && !x509)
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "Ignoring -days; not generating a certificate\n");
+    if (x509 && infile == NULL)
+        newreq = 1;
+
+    /* TODO: simplify this as pkey is still always NULL here */
+    private = newreq && (pkey == NULL) ? 1 : 0;
+
+    if (!app_passwd(passargin, passargout, &passin, &passout)) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error getting passwords\n");
+        goto end;
+    }
+
+    if (verbose)
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "Using configuration from %s\n", template);
+    req_conf = app_load_config(template);
+    if (template != default_config_file && !app_load_modules(req_conf))
+        goto end;
+
+    if (req_conf != NULL) {
+        p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, NULL, "oid_file");
+        if (p == NULL)
+            ERR_clear_error();
+        if (p != NULL) {
+            BIO *oid_bio;
+
+            oid_bio = BIO_new_file(p, "r");
+            if (oid_bio == NULL) {
+                /*-
+                BIO_printf(bio_err,"problems opening %s for extra oid's\n",p);
+                ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+                */
+            } else {
+                OBJ_create_objects(oid_bio);
+                BIO_free(oid_bio);
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    if (!add_oid_section(req_conf))
+        goto end;
+
+    if (md_alg == NULL) {
+        p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, "default_md");
+        if (p == NULL) {
+            ERR_clear_error();
+        } else {
+            if (!opt_md(p, &md_alg))
+                goto opthelp;
+            digest = md_alg;
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (extensions == NULL) {
+        extensions = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, V3_EXTENSIONS);
+        if (extensions == NULL)
+            ERR_clear_error();
+    }
+    if (extensions != NULL) {
+        /* Check syntax of file */
+        X509V3_CTX ctx;
+        X509V3_set_ctx_test(&ctx);
+        X509V3_set_nconf(&ctx, req_conf);
+        if (!X509V3_EXT_add_nconf(req_conf, &ctx, extensions, NULL)) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                       "Error Loading extension section %s\n", extensions);
+            goto end;
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (passin == NULL) {
+        passin = nofree_passin =
+            NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, "input_password");
+        if (passin == NULL)
+            ERR_clear_error();
+    }
+
+    if (passout == NULL) {
+        passout = nofree_passout =
+            NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, "output_password");
+        if (passout == NULL)
+            ERR_clear_error();
+    }
+
+    p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, STRING_MASK);
+    if (p == NULL)
+        ERR_clear_error();
+
+    if (p != NULL && !ASN1_STRING_set_default_mask_asc(p)) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "Invalid global string mask setting %s\n", p);
+        goto end;
+    }
+
+    if (chtype != MBSTRING_UTF8) {
+        p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, UTF8_IN);
+        if (p == NULL)
+            ERR_clear_error();
+        else if (strcmp(p, "yes") == 0)
+            chtype = MBSTRING_UTF8;
+    }
+
+    if (req_exts == NULL) {
+        req_exts = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, REQ_EXTENSIONS);
+        if (req_exts == NULL)
+            ERR_clear_error();
+    }
+    if (req_exts != NULL) {
+        /* Check syntax of file */
+        X509V3_CTX ctx;
+        X509V3_set_ctx_test(&ctx);
+        X509V3_set_nconf(&ctx, req_conf);
+        if (!X509V3_EXT_add_nconf(req_conf, &ctx, req_exts, NULL)) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                       "Error Loading request extension section %s\n",
+                       req_exts);
+            goto end;
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (keyfile != NULL) {
+        pkey = load_key(keyfile, keyform, 0, passin, e, "Private Key");
+        if (pkey == NULL) {
+            /* load_key() has already printed an appropriate message */
+            goto end;
+        } else {
+            app_RAND_load_conf(req_conf, SECTION);
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (newreq && (pkey == NULL)) {
+        app_RAND_load_conf(req_conf, SECTION);
+
+        if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf, SECTION, BITS, &newkey)) {
+            newkey = DEFAULT_KEY_LENGTH;
+        }
+
+        if (keyalg != NULL) {
+            genctx = set_keygen_ctx(keyalg, &pkey_type, &newkey,
+                                    &keyalgstr, gen_eng);
+            if (genctx == NULL)
+                goto end;
+        }
+
+        if (newkey < MIN_KEY_LENGTH
+            && (pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_RSA || pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_DSA)) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "private key length is too short,\n");
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "it needs to be at least %d bits, not %ld\n",
+                       MIN_KEY_LENGTH, newkey);
+            goto end;
+        }
+
+        if (genctx == NULL) {
+            genctx = set_keygen_ctx(NULL, &pkey_type, &newkey,
+                                    &keyalgstr, gen_eng);
+            if (!genctx)
+                goto end;
+        }
+
+        if (pkeyopts != NULL) {
+            char *genopt;
+            for (i = 0; i < sk_OPENSSL_STRING_num(pkeyopts); i++) {
+                genopt = sk_OPENSSL_STRING_value(pkeyopts, i);
+                if (pkey_ctrl_string(genctx, genopt) <= 0) {
+                    BIO_printf(bio_err, "parameter error \"%s\"\n", genopt);
+                    ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+                    goto end;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+
+        if (pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_EC) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Generating an EC private key\n");
+        } else {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Generating a %ld bit %s private key\n",
+                       newkey, keyalgstr);
+        }
+
+        EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_cb(genctx, genpkey_cb);
+        EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_app_data(genctx, bio_err);
+
+        if (EVP_PKEY_keygen(genctx, &pkey) <= 0) {
+            BIO_puts(bio_err, "Error Generating Key\n");
+            goto end;
+        }
+
+        EVP_PKEY_CTX_free(genctx);
+        genctx = NULL;
+
+        if (keyout == NULL) {
+            keyout = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, KEYFILE);
+            if (keyout == NULL)
+                ERR_clear_error();
+        }
+
+        if (keyout == NULL)
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "writing new private key to stdout\n");
+        else
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "writing new private key to '%s'\n", keyout);
+        out = bio_open_owner(keyout, outformat, private);
+        if (out == NULL)
+            goto end;
+
+        p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, "encrypt_rsa_key");
+        if (p == NULL) {
+            ERR_clear_error();
+            p = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, "encrypt_key");
+            if (p == NULL)
+                ERR_clear_error();
+        }
+        if ((p != NULL) && (strcmp(p, "no") == 0))
+            cipher = NULL;
+        if (nodes)
+            cipher = NULL;
+
+        i = 0;
+ loop:
+        assert(private);
+        if (!PEM_write_bio_PrivateKey(out, pkey, cipher,
+                                      NULL, 0, NULL, passout)) {
+            if ((ERR_GET_REASON(ERR_peek_error()) ==
+                 PEM_R_PROBLEMS_GETTING_PASSWORD) && (i < 3)) {
+                ERR_clear_error();
+                i++;
+                goto loop;
+            }
+            goto end;
+        }
+        BIO_free(out);
+        out = NULL;
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "-----\n");
+    }
+
+    if (!newreq) {
+        in = bio_open_default(infile, 'r', informat);
+        if (in == NULL)
+            goto end;
+
+        if (informat == FORMAT_ASN1)
+            req = d2i_X509_REQ_bio(in, NULL);
+        else
+            req = PEM_read_bio_X509_REQ(in, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+        if (req == NULL) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "unable to load X509 request\n");
+            goto end;
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (newreq || x509) {
+        if (pkey == NULL) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "you need to specify a private key\n");
+            goto end;
+        }
+
+        if (req == NULL) {
+            req = X509_REQ_new();
+            if (req == NULL) {
+                goto end;
+            }
+
+            i = make_REQ(req, pkey, subj, multirdn, !x509, chtype);
+            subj = NULL;        /* done processing '-subj' option */
+            if (!i) {
+                BIO_printf(bio_err, "problems making Certificate Request\n");
+                goto end;
+            }
+        }
+        if (x509) {
+            EVP_PKEY *tmppkey;
+            X509V3_CTX ext_ctx;
+            if ((x509ss = X509_new()) == NULL)
+                goto end;
+
+            /* Set version to V3 */
+            if (extensions != NULL && !X509_set_version(x509ss, 2))
+                goto end;
+            if (serial != NULL) {
+                if (!X509_set_serialNumber(x509ss, serial))
+                    goto end;
+            } else {
+                if (!rand_serial(NULL, X509_get_serialNumber(x509ss)))
+                    goto end;
+            }
+
+            if (!X509_set_issuer_name(x509ss, X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req)))
+                goto end;
+            if (days == 0) {
+                /* set default days if it's not specified */
+                days = 30;
+            }
+            if (!set_cert_times(x509ss, NULL, NULL, days))
+                goto end;
+            if (!X509_set_subject_name
+                (x509ss, X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req)))
+                goto end;
+            tmppkey = X509_REQ_get0_pubkey(req);
+            if (!tmppkey || !X509_set_pubkey(x509ss, tmppkey))
+                goto end;
+
+            /* Set up V3 context struct */
+
+            X509V3_set_ctx(&ext_ctx, x509ss, x509ss, NULL, NULL, 0);
+            X509V3_set_nconf(&ext_ctx, req_conf);
+
+            /* Add extensions */
+            if (extensions != NULL && !X509V3_EXT_add_nconf(req_conf,
+                                                            &ext_ctx, extensions,
+                                                            x509ss)) {
+                BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error Loading extension section %s\n",
+                           extensions);
+                goto end;
+            }
+
+            /* If a pre-cert was requested, we need to add a poison extension */
+            if (precert) {
+                if (X509_add1_ext_i2d(x509ss, NID_ct_precert_poison, NULL, 1, 0)
+                    != 1) {
+                    BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error adding poison extension\n");
+                    goto end;
+                }
+            }
+
+            i = do_X509_sign(x509ss, pkey, digest, sigopts);
+            if (!i) {
+                ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+                goto end;
+            }
+        } else {
+            X509V3_CTX ext_ctx;
+
+            /* Set up V3 context struct */
+
+            X509V3_set_ctx(&ext_ctx, NULL, NULL, req, NULL, 0);
+            X509V3_set_nconf(&ext_ctx, req_conf);
+
+            /* Add extensions */
+            if (req_exts != NULL
+                && !X509V3_EXT_REQ_add_nconf(req_conf, &ext_ctx,
+                                             req_exts, req)) {
+                BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error Loading extension section %s\n",
+                           req_exts);
+                goto end;
+            }
+            i = do_X509_REQ_sign(req, pkey, digest, sigopts);
+            if (!i) {
+                ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+                goto end;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (subj && x509) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "Cannot modify certificate subject\n");
+        goto end;
+    }
+
+    if (subj && !x509) {
+        if (verbose) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Modifying Request's Subject\n");
+            print_name(bio_err, "old subject=",
+                       X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req), get_nameopt());
+        }
+
+        if (build_subject(req, subj, chtype, multirdn) == 0) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "ERROR: cannot modify subject\n");
+            ret = 1;
+            goto end;
+        }
+
+        if (verbose) {
+            print_name(bio_err, "new subject=",
+                       X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req), get_nameopt());
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (verify && !x509) {
+        EVP_PKEY *tpubkey = pkey;
+
+        if (tpubkey == NULL) {
+            tpubkey = X509_REQ_get0_pubkey(req);
+            if (tpubkey == NULL)
+                goto end;
+        }
+
+        i = X509_REQ_verify(req, tpubkey);
+
+        if (i < 0) {
+            goto end;
+        } else if (i == 0) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "verify failure\n");
+            ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+        } else {                 /* if (i > 0) */
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "verify OK\n");
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (noout && !text && !modulus && !subject && !pubkey) {
+        ret = 0;
+        goto end;
+    }
+
+    out = bio_open_default(outfile,
+                           keyout != NULL && outfile != NULL &&
+                           strcmp(keyout, outfile) == 0 ? 'a' : 'w',
+                           outformat);
+    if (out == NULL)
+        goto end;
+
+    if (pubkey) {
+        EVP_PKEY *tpubkey = X509_REQ_get0_pubkey(req);
+
+        if (tpubkey == NULL) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error getting public key\n");
+            ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+            goto end;
+        }
+        PEM_write_bio_PUBKEY(out, tpubkey);
+    }
+
+    if (text) {
+        if (x509)
+            X509_print_ex(out, x509ss, get_nameopt(), reqflag);
+        else
+            X509_REQ_print_ex(out, req, get_nameopt(), reqflag);
+    }
+
+    if (subject) {
+        if (x509)
+            print_name(out, "subject=", X509_get_subject_name(x509ss),
+                       get_nameopt());
+        else
+            print_name(out, "subject=", X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req),
+                       get_nameopt());
+    }
+
+    if (modulus) {
+        EVP_PKEY *tpubkey;
+
+        if (x509)
+            tpubkey = X509_get0_pubkey(x509ss);
+        else
+            tpubkey = X509_REQ_get0_pubkey(req);
+        if (tpubkey == NULL) {
+            fprintf(stdout, "Modulus=unavailable\n");
+            goto end;
+        }
+        fprintf(stdout, "Modulus=");
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_RSA
-               if (EVP_PKEY_base_id(tpubkey) == EVP_PKEY_RSA)
-                       BN_print(out,tpubkey->pkey.rsa->n);
-               else
+        if (EVP_PKEY_base_id(tpubkey) == EVP_PKEY_RSA) {
+            const BIGNUM *n;
+            RSA_get0_key(EVP_PKEY_get0_RSA(tpubkey), &n, NULL, NULL);
+            BN_print(out, n);
+        } else
 #endif
-                       fprintf(stdout,"Wrong Algorithm type");
-               EVP_PKEY_free(tpubkey);
-               fprintf(stdout,"\n");
-               }
-
-       if (!noout && !x509)
-               {
-               if      (outformat == FORMAT_ASN1)
-                       i=i2d_X509_REQ_bio(out,req);
-               else if (outformat == FORMAT_PEM) {
-                       if(newhdr) i=PEM_write_bio_X509_REQ_NEW(out,req);
-                       else i=PEM_write_bio_X509_REQ(out,req);
-               } else {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"bad output format specified for outfile\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               if (!i)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"unable to write X509 request\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               }
-       if (!noout && x509 && (x509ss != NULL))
-               {
-               if      (outformat == FORMAT_ASN1)
-                       i=i2d_X509_bio(out,x509ss);
-               else if (outformat == FORMAT_PEM)
-                       i=PEM_write_bio_X509(out,x509ss);
-               else    {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"bad output format specified for outfile\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               if (!i)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"unable to write X509 certificate\n");
-                       goto end;
-                       }
-               }
-       ex=0;
-end:
-#ifndef MONOLITH
-       if(to_free)
-               OPENSSL_free(to_free);
-#endif
-       if (ex)
-               {
-               ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-               }
-       if ((req_conf != NULL) && (req_conf != config)) NCONF_free(req_conf);
-       BIO_free(in);
-       BIO_free_all(out);
-       EVP_PKEY_free(pkey);
-       if (genctx)
-               EVP_PKEY_CTX_free(genctx);
-       if (pkeyopts)
-               sk_free(pkeyopts);
+            fprintf(stdout, "Wrong Algorithm type");
+        fprintf(stdout, "\n");
+    }
+
+    if (!noout && !x509) {
+        if (outformat == FORMAT_ASN1)
+            i = i2d_X509_REQ_bio(out, req);
+        else if (newhdr)
+            i = PEM_write_bio_X509_REQ_NEW(out, req);
+        else
+            i = PEM_write_bio_X509_REQ(out, req);
+        if (!i) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "unable to write X509 request\n");
+            goto end;
+        }
+    }
+    if (!noout && x509 && (x509ss != NULL)) {
+        if (outformat == FORMAT_ASN1)
+            i = i2d_X509_bio(out, x509ss);
+        else
+            i = PEM_write_bio_X509(out, x509ss);
+        if (!i) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "unable to write X509 certificate\n");
+            goto end;
+        }
+    }
+    ret = 0;
+ end:
+    if (ret) {
+        ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+    }
+    NCONF_free(req_conf);
+    BIO_free(in);
+    BIO_free_all(out);
+    EVP_PKEY_free(pkey);
+    EVP_PKEY_CTX_free(genctx);
+    sk_OPENSSL_STRING_free(pkeyopts);
+    sk_OPENSSL_STRING_free(sigopts);
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE
-       if (gen_eng)
-               ENGINE_free(gen_eng);
+    ENGINE_free(gen_eng);
 #endif
-       if (keyalgstr)
-               OPENSSL_free(keyalgstr);
-       X509_REQ_free(req);
-       X509_free(x509ss);
-       ASN1_INTEGER_free(serial);
-       if(passargin && passin) OPENSSL_free(passin);
-       if(passargout && passout) OPENSSL_free(passout);
-       OBJ_cleanup();
-       apps_shutdown();
-       OPENSSL_EXIT(ex);
-       }
+    OPENSSL_free(keyalgstr);
+    X509_REQ_free(req);
+    X509_free(x509ss);
+    ASN1_INTEGER_free(serial);
+    release_engine(e);
+    if (passin != nofree_passin)
+        OPENSSL_free(passin);
+    if (passout != nofree_passout)
+        OPENSSL_free(passout);
+    return ret;
+}
 
 static int make_REQ(X509_REQ *req, EVP_PKEY *pkey, char *subj, int multirdn,
-                       int attribs, unsigned long chtype)
-       {
-       int ret=0,i;
-       char no_prompt = 0;
-       STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *dn_sk, *attr_sk = NULL;
-       char *tmp, *dn_sect,*attr_sect;
-
-       tmp=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,PROMPT);
-       if (tmp == NULL)
-               ERR_clear_error();
-       if((tmp != NULL) && !strcmp(tmp, "no")) no_prompt = 1;
-
-       dn_sect=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,DISTINGUISHED_NAME);
-       if (dn_sect == NULL)
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"unable to find '%s' in config\n",
-                       DISTINGUISHED_NAME);
-               goto err;
-               }
-       dn_sk=NCONF_get_section(req_conf,dn_sect);
-       if (dn_sk == NULL)
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"unable to get '%s' section\n",dn_sect);
-               goto err;
-               }
-
-       attr_sect=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,SECTION,ATTRIBUTES);
-       if (attr_sect == NULL)
-               {
-               ERR_clear_error();              
-               attr_sk=NULL;
-               }
-       else
-               {
-               attr_sk=NCONF_get_section(req_conf,attr_sect);
-               if (attr_sk == NULL)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"unable to get '%s' section\n",attr_sect);
-                       goto err;
-                       }
-               }
-
-       /* setup version number */
-       if (!X509_REQ_set_version(req,0L)) goto err; /* version 1 */
-
-       if (no_prompt) 
-               i = auto_info(req, dn_sk, attr_sk, attribs, chtype);
-       else 
-               {
-               if (subj)
-                       i = build_subject(req, subj, chtype, multirdn);
-               else
-                       i = prompt_info(req, dn_sk, dn_sect, attr_sk, attr_sect, attribs, chtype);
-               }
-       if(!i) goto err;
-
-       if (!X509_REQ_set_pubkey(req,pkey)) goto err;
-
-       ret=1;
-err:
-       return(ret);
-       }
+                    int attribs, unsigned long chtype)
+{
+    int ret = 0, i;
+    char no_prompt = 0;
+    STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *dn_sk, *attr_sk = NULL;
+    char *tmp, *dn_sect, *attr_sect;
+
+    tmp = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, PROMPT);
+    if (tmp == NULL)
+        ERR_clear_error();
+    if ((tmp != NULL) && strcmp(tmp, "no") == 0)
+        no_prompt = 1;
+
+    dn_sect = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, DISTINGUISHED_NAME);
+    if (dn_sect == NULL) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "unable to find '%s' in config\n",
+                   DISTINGUISHED_NAME);
+        goto err;
+    }
+    dn_sk = NCONF_get_section(req_conf, dn_sect);
+    if (dn_sk == NULL) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "unable to get '%s' section\n", dn_sect);
+        goto err;
+    }
+
+    attr_sect = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, SECTION, ATTRIBUTES);
+    if (attr_sect == NULL) {
+        ERR_clear_error();
+        attr_sk = NULL;
+    } else {
+        attr_sk = NCONF_get_section(req_conf, attr_sect);
+        if (attr_sk == NULL) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "unable to get '%s' section\n", attr_sect);
+            goto err;
+        }
+    }
+
+    /* setup version number */
+    if (!X509_REQ_set_version(req, 0L))
+        goto err;               /* version 1 */
+
+    if (subj)
+        i = build_subject(req, subj, chtype, multirdn);
+    else if (no_prompt)
+        i = auto_info(req, dn_sk, attr_sk, attribs, chtype);
+    else
+        i = prompt_info(req, dn_sk, dn_sect, attr_sk, attr_sect, attribs,
+                        chtype);
+    if (!i)
+        goto err;
+
+    if (!X509_REQ_set_pubkey(req, pkey))
+        goto err;
+
+    ret = 1;
+ err:
+    return ret;
+}
 
 /*
  * subject is expected to be in the format /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=...
  * where characters may be escaped by \
  */
-static int build_subject(X509_REQ *req, char *subject, unsigned long chtype, int multirdn)
-       {
-       X509_NAME *n;
-
-       if (!(n = parse_name(subject, chtype, multirdn)))
-               return 0;
-
-       if (!X509_REQ_set_subject_name(req, n))
-               {
-               X509_NAME_free(n);
-               return 0;
-               }
-       X509_NAME_free(n);
-       return 1;
-}
+static int build_subject(X509_REQ *req, const char *subject, unsigned long chtype,
+                         int multirdn)
+{
+    X509_NAME *n;
 
+    if ((n = parse_name(subject, chtype, multirdn)) == NULL)
+        return 0;
+
+    if (!X509_REQ_set_subject_name(req, n)) {
+        X509_NAME_free(n);
+        return 0;
+    }
+    X509_NAME_free(n);
+    return 1;
+}
 
 static int prompt_info(X509_REQ *req,
-               STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *dn_sk, char *dn_sect,
-               STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr_sk, char *attr_sect, int attribs,
-               unsigned long chtype)
-       {
-       int i;
-       char *p,*q;
-       char buf[100];
-       int nid, mval;
-       long n_min,n_max;
-       char *type, *value;
-       const char *def;
-       CONF_VALUE *v;
-       X509_NAME *subj;
-       subj = X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req);
-
-       if(!batch)
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"into your certificate request.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"For some fields there will be a default value,\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.\n");
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"-----\n");
-               }
-
-
-       if (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(dn_sk))
-               {
-               i= -1;
-start:         for (;;)
-                       {
-                       i++;
-                       if (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(dn_sk) <= i) break;
-
-                       v=sk_CONF_VALUE_value(dn_sk,i);
-                       p=q=NULL;
-                       type=v->name;
-                       if(!check_end(type,"_min") || !check_end(type,"_max") ||
-                               !check_end(type,"_default") ||
-                                        !check_end(type,"_value")) continue;
-                       /* Skip past any leading X. X: X, etc to allow for
-                        * multiple instances 
-                        */
-                       for(p = v->name; *p ; p++) 
-                               if ((*p == ':') || (*p == ',') ||
-                                                        (*p == '.')) {
-                                       p++;
-                                       if(*p) type = p;
-                                       break;
-                               }
-                       if (*type == '+')
-                               {
-                               mval = -1;
-                               type++;
-                               }
-                       else
-                               mval = 0;
-                       /* If OBJ not recognised ignore it */
-                       if ((nid=OBJ_txt2nid(type)) == NID_undef) goto start;
-                       if (BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_default",v->name)
-                               >= (int)sizeof(buf))
-                          {
-                          BIO_printf(bio_err,"Name '%s' too long\n",v->name);
-                          return 0;
-                          }
-
-                       if ((def=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,dn_sect,buf)) == NULL)
-                               {
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                               def="";
-                               }
-                               
-                       BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_value",v->name);
-                       if ((value=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,dn_sect,buf)) == NULL)
-                               {
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                               value=NULL;
-                               }
-
-                       BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_min",v->name);
-                       if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf,dn_sect,buf, &n_min))
-                               {
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                               n_min = -1;
-                               }
-
-                       BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_max",v->name);
-                       if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf,dn_sect,buf, &n_max))
-                               {
-                               ERR_clear_error();
-                               n_max = -1;
-                               }
-
-                       if (!add_DN_object(subj,v->value,def,value,nid,
-                               n_min,n_max, chtype, mval))
-                               return 0;
-                       }
-               if (X509_NAME_entry_count(subj) == 0)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"error, no objects specified in config file\n");
-                       return 0;
-                       }
-
-               if (attribs)
-                       {
-                       if ((attr_sk != NULL) && (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(attr_sk) > 0) && (!batch))
-                               {
-                               BIO_printf(bio_err,"\nPlease enter the following 'extra' attributes\n");
-                               BIO_printf(bio_err,"to be sent with your certificate request\n");
-                               }
-
-                       i= -1;
-start2:                        for (;;)
-                               {
-                               i++;
-                               if ((attr_sk == NULL) ||
-                                           (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(attr_sk) <= i))
-                                       break;
-
-                               v=sk_CONF_VALUE_value(attr_sk,i);
-                               type=v->name;
-                               if ((nid=OBJ_txt2nid(type)) == NID_undef)
-                                       goto start2;
-
-                               if (BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_default",type)
-                                       >= (int)sizeof(buf))
-                                  {
-                                  BIO_printf(bio_err,"Name '%s' too long\n",v->name);
-                                  return 0;
-                                  }
-
-                               if ((def=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,attr_sect,buf))
-                                       == NULL)
-                                       {
-                                       ERR_clear_error();
-                                       def="";
-                                       }
-                               
-                               
-                               BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_value",type);
-                               if ((value=NCONF_get_string(req_conf,attr_sect,buf))
-                                       == NULL)
-                                       {
-                                       ERR_clear_error();
-                                       value=NULL;
-                                       }
-
-                               BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_min",type);
-                               if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf,attr_sect,buf, &n_min))
-                                       n_min = -1;
-
-                               BIO_snprintf(buf,sizeof buf,"%s_max",type);
-                               if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf,attr_sect,buf, &n_max))
-                                       n_max = -1;
-
-                               if (!add_attribute_object(req,
-                                       v->value,def,value,nid,n_min,n_max, chtype))
-                                       return 0;
-                               }
-                       }
-               }
-       else
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"No template, please set one up.\n");
-               return 0;
-               }
-
-       return 1;
-
-       }
+                       STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *dn_sk, const char *dn_sect,
+                       STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr_sk, const char *attr_sect,
+                       int attribs, unsigned long chtype)
+{
+    int i;
+    char *p, *q;
+    char buf[100];
+    int nid, mval;
+    long n_min, n_max;
+    char *type, *value;
+    const char *def;
+    CONF_VALUE *v;
+    X509_NAME *subj;
+    subj = X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req);
+
+    if (!batch) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                   "You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated\n");
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "into your certificate request.\n");
+        BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                   "What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.\n");
+        BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                   "There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank\n");
+        BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                   "For some fields there will be a default value,\n");
+        BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                   "If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.\n");
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "-----\n");
+    }
+
+    if (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(dn_sk)) {
+        i = -1;
+ start:
+        for ( ; ; ) {
+            i++;
+            if (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(dn_sk) <= i)
+                break;
+
+            v = sk_CONF_VALUE_value(dn_sk, i);
+            p = q = NULL;
+            type = v->name;
+            if (!check_end(type, "_min") || !check_end(type, "_max") ||
+                !check_end(type, "_default") || !check_end(type, "_value"))
+                continue;
+            /*
+             * Skip past any leading X. X: X, etc to allow for multiple
+             * instances
+             */
+            for (p = v->name; *p; p++)
+                if ((*p == ':') || (*p == ',') || (*p == '.')) {
+                    p++;
+                    if (*p)
+                        type = p;
+                    break;
+                }
+            if (*type == '+') {
+                mval = -1;
+                type++;
+            } else {
+                mval = 0;
+            }
+            /* If OBJ not recognised ignore it */
+            if ((nid = OBJ_txt2nid(type)) == NID_undef)
+                goto start;
+            if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), v->name, "_default", "Name"))
+                return 0;
+            if ((def = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, dn_sect, buf)) == NULL) {
+                ERR_clear_error();
+                def = "";
+            }
+
+            if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), v->name, "_value", "Name"))
+                return 0;
+            if ((value = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, dn_sect, buf)) == NULL) {
+                ERR_clear_error();
+                value = NULL;
+            }
+
+            if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), v->name, "_min", "Name"))
+                return 0;
+            if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf, dn_sect, buf, &n_min)) {
+                ERR_clear_error();
+                n_min = -1;
+            }
+
+
+            if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), v->name, "_max", "Name"))
+                return 0;
+            if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf, dn_sect, buf, &n_max)) {
+                ERR_clear_error();
+                n_max = -1;
+            }
+
+            if (!add_DN_object(subj, v->value, def, value, nid,
+                               n_min, n_max, chtype, mval))
+                return 0;
+        }
+        if (X509_NAME_entry_count(subj) == 0) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                       "error, no objects specified in config file\n");
+            return 0;
+        }
+
+        if (attribs) {
+            if ((attr_sk != NULL) && (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(attr_sk) > 0)
+                && (!batch)) {
+                BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                           "\nPlease enter the following 'extra' attributes\n");
+                BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                           "to be sent with your certificate request\n");
+            }
+
+            i = -1;
+ start2:
+            for ( ; ; ) {
+                i++;
+                if ((attr_sk == NULL) || (sk_CONF_VALUE_num(attr_sk) <= i))
+                    break;
+
+                v = sk_CONF_VALUE_value(attr_sk, i);
+                type = v->name;
+                if ((nid = OBJ_txt2nid(type)) == NID_undef)
+                    goto start2;
+
+                if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), type, "_default", "Name"))
+                    return 0;
+                if ((def = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, attr_sect, buf))
+                    == NULL) {
+                    ERR_clear_error();
+                    def = "";
+                }
+
+                if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), type, "_value", "Name"))
+                    return 0;
+                if ((value = NCONF_get_string(req_conf, attr_sect, buf))
+                    == NULL) {
+                    ERR_clear_error();
+                    value = NULL;
+                }
+
+                if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), type,"_min", "Name"))
+                    return 0;
+                if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf, attr_sect, buf, &n_min)) {
+                    ERR_clear_error();
+                    n_min = -1;
+                }
+
+                if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), type, "_max", "Name"))
+                    return 0;
+                if (!NCONF_get_number(req_conf, attr_sect, buf, &n_max)) {
+                    ERR_clear_error();
+                    n_max = -1;
+                }
+
+                if (!add_attribute_object(req,
+                                          v->value, def, value, nid, n_min,
+                                          n_max, chtype))
+                    return 0;
+            }
+        }
+    } else {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "No template, please set one up.\n");
+        return 0;
+    }
+
+    return 1;
+
+}
 
 static int auto_info(X509_REQ *req, STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *dn_sk,
-                       STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr_sk, int attribs, unsigned long chtype)
-       {
-       int i;
-       char *p,*q;
-       char *type;
-       CONF_VALUE *v;
-       X509_NAME *subj;
-
-       subj = X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req);
-
-       for (i = 0; i < sk_CONF_VALUE_num(dn_sk); i++)
-               {
-               int mval;
-               v=sk_CONF_VALUE_value(dn_sk,i);
-               p=q=NULL;
-               type=v->name;
-               /* Skip past any leading X. X: X, etc to allow for
-                * multiple instances 
-                */
-               for(p = v->name; *p ; p++) 
+                     STACK_OF(CONF_VALUE) *attr_sk, int attribs,
+                     unsigned long chtype)
+{
+    int i, spec_char, plus_char;
+    char *p, *q;
+    char *type;
+    CONF_VALUE *v;
+    X509_NAME *subj;
+
+    subj = X509_REQ_get_subject_name(req);
+
+    for (i = 0; i < sk_CONF_VALUE_num(dn_sk); i++) {
+        int mval;
+        v = sk_CONF_VALUE_value(dn_sk, i);
+        p = q = NULL;
+        type = v->name;
+        /*
+         * Skip past any leading X. X: X, etc to allow for multiple instances
+         */
+        for (p = v->name; *p; p++) {
 #ifndef CHARSET_EBCDIC
-                       if ((*p == ':') || (*p == ',') || (*p == '.')) {
+            spec_char = ((*p == ':') || (*p == ',') || (*p == '.'));
 #else
-                       if ((*p == os_toascii[':']) || (*p == os_toascii[',']) || (*p == os_toascii['.'])) {
+            spec_char = ((*p == os_toascii[':']) || (*p == os_toascii[','])
+                    || (*p == os_toascii['.']));
 #endif
-                               p++;
-                               if(*p) type = p;
-                               break;
-                       }
+            if (spec_char) {
+                p++;
+                if (*p)
+                    type = p;
+                break;
+            }
+        }
 #ifndef CHARSET_EBCDIC
-               if (*p == '+')
+        plus_char = (*type == '+');
 #else
-               if (*p == os_toascii['+'])
+        plus_char = (*type == os_toascii['+']);
 #endif
-                       {
-                       p++;
-                       mval = -1;
-                       }
-               else
-                       mval = 0;
-               if (!X509_NAME_add_entry_by_txt(subj,type, chtype,
-                               (unsigned char *) v->value,-1,-1,mval)) return 0;
-
-               }
-
-               if (!X509_NAME_entry_count(subj))
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(bio_err,"error, no objects specified in config file\n");
-                       return 0;
-                       }
-               if (attribs)
-                       {
-                       for (i = 0; i < sk_CONF_VALUE_num(attr_sk); i++)
-                               {
-                               v=sk_CONF_VALUE_value(attr_sk,i);
-                               if(!X509_REQ_add1_attr_by_txt(req, v->name, chtype,
-                                       (unsigned char *)v->value, -1)) return 0;
-                               }
-                       }
-       return 1;
-       }
-
-
-static int add_DN_object(X509_NAME *n, char *text, const char *def, char *value,
-            int nid, int n_min, int n_max, unsigned long chtype, int mval)
-       {
-       int i,ret=0;
-       MS_STATIC char buf[1024];
-start:
-       if (!batch) BIO_printf(bio_err,"%s [%s]:",text,def);
-       (void)BIO_flush(bio_err);
-       if(value != NULL)
-               {
-               BUF_strlcpy(buf,value,sizeof buf);
-               BUF_strlcat(buf,"\n",sizeof buf);
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"%s\n",value);
-               }
-       else
-               {
-               buf[0]='\0';
-               if (!batch)
-                       {
-                       fgets(buf,sizeof buf,stdin);
-                       }
-               else
-                       {
-                       buf[0] = '\n';
-                       buf[1] = '\0';
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (buf[0] == '\0') return(0);
-       else if (buf[0] == '\n')
-               {
-               if ((def == NULL) || (def[0] == '\0'))
-                       return(1);
-               BUF_strlcpy(buf,def,sizeof buf);
-               BUF_strlcat(buf,"\n",sizeof buf);
-               }
-       else if ((buf[0] == '.') && (buf[1] == '\n')) return(1);
-
-       i=strlen(buf);
-       if (buf[i-1] != '\n')
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"weird input :-(\n");
-               return(0);
-               }
-       buf[--i]='\0';
+        if (plus_char) {
+            type++;
+            mval = -1;
+        } else {
+            mval = 0;
+        }
+        if (!X509_NAME_add_entry_by_txt(subj, type, chtype,
+                                        (unsigned char *)v->value, -1, -1,
+                                        mval))
+            return 0;
+
+    }
+
+    if (!X509_NAME_entry_count(subj)) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "error, no objects specified in config file\n");
+        return 0;
+    }
+    if (attribs) {
+        for (i = 0; i < sk_CONF_VALUE_num(attr_sk); i++) {
+            v = sk_CONF_VALUE_value(attr_sk, i);
+            if (!X509_REQ_add1_attr_by_txt(req, v->name, chtype,
+                                           (unsigned char *)v->value, -1))
+                return 0;
+        }
+    }
+    return 1;
+}
+
+static int add_DN_object(X509_NAME *n, char *text, const char *def,
+                         char *value, int nid, int n_min, int n_max,
+                         unsigned long chtype, int mval)
+{
+    int i, ret = 0;
+    char buf[1024];
+ start:
+    if (!batch)
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "%s [%s]:", text, def);
+    (void)BIO_flush(bio_err);
+    if (value != NULL) {
+        if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), value, "\n", "DN value"))
+            return 0;
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "%s\n", value);
+    } else {
+        buf[0] = '\0';
+        if (!batch) {
+            if (!fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), stdin))
+                return 0;
+        } else {
+            buf[0] = '\n';
+            buf[1] = '\0';
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (buf[0] == '\0')
+        return 0;
+    if (buf[0] == '\n') {
+        if ((def == NULL) || (def[0] == '\0'))
+            return 1;
+        if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), def, "\n", "DN default"))
+            return 0;
+    } else if ((buf[0] == '.') && (buf[1] == '\n')) {
+        return 1;
+    }
+
+    i = strlen(buf);
+    if (buf[i - 1] != '\n') {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "weird input :-(\n");
+        return 0;
+    }
+    buf[--i] = '\0';
 #ifdef CHARSET_EBCDIC
-       ebcdic2ascii(buf, buf, i);
+    ebcdic2ascii(buf, buf, i);
 #endif
-       if(!req_check_len(i, n_min, n_max)) goto start;
-       if (!X509_NAME_add_entry_by_NID(n,nid, chtype,
-                               (unsigned char *) buf, -1,-1,mval)) goto err;
-       ret=1;
-err:
-       return(ret);
-       }
+    if (!req_check_len(i, n_min, n_max)) {
+        if (batch || value)
+            return 0;
+        goto start;
+    }
+
+    if (!X509_NAME_add_entry_by_NID(n, nid, chtype,
+                                    (unsigned char *)buf, -1, -1, mval))
+        goto err;
+    ret = 1;
+ err:
+    return ret;
+}
 
 static int add_attribute_object(X509_REQ *req, char *text, const char *def,
-                               char *value, int nid, int n_min,
-                               int n_max, unsigned long chtype)
-       {
-       int i;
-       static char buf[1024];
-
-start:
-       if (!batch) BIO_printf(bio_err,"%s [%s]:",text,def);
-       (void)BIO_flush(bio_err);
-       if (value != NULL)
-               {
-               BUF_strlcpy(buf,value,sizeof buf);
-               BUF_strlcat(buf,"\n",sizeof buf);
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"%s\n",value);
-               }
-       else
-               {
-               buf[0]='\0';
-               if (!batch)
-                       {
-                       fgets(buf,sizeof buf,stdin);
-                       }
-               else
-                       {
-                       buf[0] = '\n';
-                       buf[1] = '\0';
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (buf[0] == '\0') return(0);
-       else if (buf[0] == '\n')
-               {
-               if ((def == NULL) || (def[0] == '\0'))
-                       return(1);
-               BUF_strlcpy(buf,def,sizeof buf);
-               BUF_strlcat(buf,"\n",sizeof buf);
-               }
-       else if ((buf[0] == '.') && (buf[1] == '\n')) return(1);
-
-       i=strlen(buf);
-       if (buf[i-1] != '\n')
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"weird input :-(\n");
-               return(0);
-               }
-       buf[--i]='\0';
+                                char *value, int nid, int n_min,
+                                int n_max, unsigned long chtype)
+{
+    int i;
+    static char buf[1024];
+
+ start:
+    if (!batch)
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "%s [%s]:", text, def);
+    (void)BIO_flush(bio_err);
+    if (value != NULL) {
+        if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), value, "\n", "Attribute value"))
+            return 0;
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "%s\n", value);
+    } else {
+        buf[0] = '\0';
+        if (!batch) {
+            if (!fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), stdin))
+                return 0;
+        } else {
+            buf[0] = '\n';
+            buf[1] = '\0';
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (buf[0] == '\0')
+        return 0;
+    if (buf[0] == '\n') {
+        if ((def == NULL) || (def[0] == '\0'))
+            return 1;
+        if (!join(buf, sizeof(buf), def, "\n", "Attribute default"))
+            return 0;
+    } else if ((buf[0] == '.') && (buf[1] == '\n')) {
+        return 1;
+    }
+
+    i = strlen(buf);
+    if (buf[i - 1] != '\n') {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "weird input :-(\n");
+        return 0;
+    }
+    buf[--i] = '\0';
 #ifdef CHARSET_EBCDIC
-       ebcdic2ascii(buf, buf, i);
+    ebcdic2ascii(buf, buf, i);
 #endif
-       if(!req_check_len(i, n_min, n_max)) goto start;
-
-       if(!X509_REQ_add1_attr_by_NID(req, nid, chtype,
-                                       (unsigned char *)buf, -1)) {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error adding attribute\n");
-               ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
-               goto err;
-       }
-
-       return(1);
-err:
-       return(0);
-       }
+    if (!req_check_len(i, n_min, n_max)) {
+        if (batch || value)
+            return 0;
+        goto start;
+    }
+
+    if (!X509_REQ_add1_attr_by_NID(req, nid, chtype,
+                                   (unsigned char *)buf, -1)) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error adding attribute\n");
+        ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+        goto err;
+    }
+
+    return 1;
+ err:
+    return 0;
+}
 
 static int req_check_len(int len, int n_min, int n_max)
-       {
-       if ((n_min > 0) && (len < n_min))
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"string is too short, it needs to be at least %d bytes long\n",n_min);
-               return(0);
-               }
-       if ((n_max >= 0) && (len > n_max))
-               {
-               BIO_printf(bio_err,"string is too long, it needs to be less than  %d bytes long\n",n_max);
-               return(0);
-               }
-       return(1);
-       }
+{
+    if ((n_min > 0) && (len < n_min)) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                   "string is too short, it needs to be at least %d bytes long\n",
+                   n_min);
+        return 0;
+    }
+    if ((n_max >= 0) && (len > n_max)) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err,
+                   "string is too long, it needs to be no more than %d bytes long\n",
+                   n_max);
+        return 0;
+    }
+    return 1;
+}
 
 /* Check if the end of a string matches 'end' */
 static int check_end(const char *str, const char *end)
 {
-       int elen, slen; 
-       const char *tmp;
-       elen = strlen(end);
-       slen = strlen(str);
-       if(elen > slen) return 1;
-       tmp = str + slen - elen;
-       return strcmp(tmp, end);
+    size_t elen, slen;
+    const char *tmp;
+
+    elen = strlen(end);
+    slen = strlen(str);
+    if (elen > slen)
+        return 1;
+    tmp = str + slen - elen;
+    return strcmp(tmp, end);
 }
 
-static EVP_PKEY_CTX *set_keygen_ctx(BIO *err, const char *gstr, int *pkey_type,
-                                       long *pkeylen, char **palgnam,
-                                       ENGINE *keygen_engine)
-       {
-       EVP_PKEY_CTX *gctx = NULL;
-       EVP_PKEY *param = NULL;
-       long keylen = -1;
-       BIO *pbio = NULL;
-       const char *paramfile = NULL;
-
-       if (gstr == NULL)
-               {
-               *pkey_type = EVP_PKEY_RSA;
-               keylen = *pkeylen;
-               }
-       else if (gstr[0] >= '0' && gstr[0] <= '9')
-               {
-               *pkey_type = EVP_PKEY_RSA;
-               keylen = atol(gstr);
-               *pkeylen = keylen;
-               }
-       else if (!strncmp(gstr, "param:", 6))
-               paramfile = gstr + 6;
-       else
-               {
-               const char *p = strchr(gstr, ':');
-               int len;
-               ENGINE *tmpeng;
-               const EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD *ameth;
-
-               if (p)
-                       len = p - gstr;
-               else
-                       len = strlen(gstr);
-               /* The lookup of a the string will cover all engines so
-                * keep a note of the implementation.
-                */
-
-               ameth = EVP_PKEY_asn1_find_str(&tmpeng, gstr, len);
-
-               if (!ameth)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(err, "Unknown algorithm %.*s\n", len, gstr);
-                       return NULL;
-                       }
-
-               EVP_PKEY_asn1_get0_info(NULL, pkey_type, NULL, NULL, NULL,
-                                                                       ameth);
+/*
+ * Merge the two strings together into the result buffer checking for
+ * overflow and producing an error message if there is.
+ */
+static int join(char buf[], size_t buf_size, const char *name,
+                const char *tail, const char *desc)
+{
+    const size_t name_len = strlen(name), tail_len = strlen(tail);
+
+    if (name_len + tail_len + 1 > buf_size) {
+        BIO_printf(bio_err, "%s '%s' too long\n", desc, name);
+        return 0;
+    }
+    memcpy(buf, name, name_len);
+    memcpy(buf + name_len, tail, tail_len + 1);
+    return 1;
+}
+
+static EVP_PKEY_CTX *set_keygen_ctx(const char *gstr,
+                                    int *pkey_type, long *pkeylen,
+                                    char **palgnam, ENGINE *keygen_engine)
+{
+    EVP_PKEY_CTX *gctx = NULL;
+    EVP_PKEY *param = NULL;
+    long keylen = -1;
+    BIO *pbio = NULL;
+    const char *paramfile = NULL;
+
+    if (gstr == NULL) {
+        *pkey_type = EVP_PKEY_RSA;
+        keylen = *pkeylen;
+    } else if (gstr[0] >= '0' && gstr[0] <= '9') {
+        *pkey_type = EVP_PKEY_RSA;
+        keylen = atol(gstr);
+        *pkeylen = keylen;
+    } else if (strncmp(gstr, "param:", 6) == 0) {
+        paramfile = gstr + 6;
+    } else {
+        const char *p = strchr(gstr, ':');
+        int len;
+        ENGINE *tmpeng;
+        const EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD *ameth;
+
+        if (p != NULL)
+            len = p - gstr;
+        else
+            len = strlen(gstr);
+        /*
+         * The lookup of a the string will cover all engines so keep a note
+         * of the implementation.
+         */
+
+        ameth = EVP_PKEY_asn1_find_str(&tmpeng, gstr, len);
+
+        if (ameth == NULL) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Unknown algorithm %.*s\n", len, gstr);
+            return NULL;
+        }
+
+        EVP_PKEY_asn1_get0_info(NULL, pkey_type, NULL, NULL, NULL, ameth);
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE
-               if (tmpeng)
-                       ENGINE_finish(tmpeng);
+        ENGINE_finish(tmpeng);
 #endif
-               if (*pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_RSA)
-                       {
-                       if (p)
-                               {
-                               keylen = atol(p + 1);
-                               *pkeylen = keylen;
-                               }
-                       }
-               else if (p)
-                       paramfile = p + 1;
-               }
-
-       if (paramfile)
-               {
-               pbio = BIO_new_file(paramfile, "r");
-               if (!pbio)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(err, "Can't open parameter file %s\n",
-                                       paramfile);
-                       return NULL;
-                       }
-               param = PEM_read_bio_Parameters(pbio, NULL);
-
-               if (!param)
-                       {
-                       X509 *x;
-                       (void)BIO_reset(pbio);
-                       x = PEM_read_bio_X509(pbio, NULL, NULL, NULL);
-                       if (x)
-                               {
-                               param = X509_get_pubkey(x);
-                               X509_free(x);
-                               }
-                       }
-
-               BIO_free(pbio);
-
-               if (!param)
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(err, "Error reading parameter file %s\n",
-                                       paramfile);
-                       return NULL;
-                       }
-               if (*pkey_type == -1)
-                       *pkey_type = EVP_PKEY_id(param);
-               else if (*pkey_type != EVP_PKEY_base_id(param))
-                       {
-                       BIO_printf(err, "Key Type does not match parameters\n");
-                       EVP_PKEY_free(param);
-                       return NULL;
-                       }
-               }
-
-       if (palgnam)
-               {
-               const EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD *ameth;
-               ENGINE *tmpeng;
-               const char *anam;
-               ameth = EVP_PKEY_asn1_find(&tmpeng, *pkey_type);
-               if (!ameth)
-                       {
-                       BIO_puts(err, "Internal error: can't find key algorithm\n");
-                       return NULL;
-                       }
-               EVP_PKEY_asn1_get0_info(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, &anam, ameth);
-               *palgnam = BUF_strdup(anam);
+        if (*pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_RSA) {
+            if (p != NULL) {
+                keylen = atol(p + 1);
+                *pkeylen = keylen;
+            } else {
+                keylen = *pkeylen;
+            }
+        } else if (p != NULL) {
+            paramfile = p + 1;
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (paramfile != NULL) {
+        pbio = BIO_new_file(paramfile, "r");
+        if (pbio == NULL) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Can't open parameter file %s\n", paramfile);
+            return NULL;
+        }
+        param = PEM_read_bio_Parameters(pbio, NULL);
+
+        if (param == NULL) {
+            X509 *x;
+
+            (void)BIO_reset(pbio);
+            x = PEM_read_bio_X509(pbio, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+            if (x != NULL) {
+                param = X509_get_pubkey(x);
+                X509_free(x);
+            }
+        }
+
+        BIO_free(pbio);
+
+        if (param == NULL) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Error reading parameter file %s\n", paramfile);
+            return NULL;
+        }
+        if (*pkey_type == -1) {
+            *pkey_type = EVP_PKEY_id(param);
+        } else if (*pkey_type != EVP_PKEY_base_id(param)) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "Key Type does not match parameters\n");
+            EVP_PKEY_free(param);
+            return NULL;
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (palgnam != NULL) {
+        const EVP_PKEY_ASN1_METHOD *ameth;
+        ENGINE *tmpeng;
+        const char *anam;
+
+        ameth = EVP_PKEY_asn1_find(&tmpeng, *pkey_type);
+        if (ameth == NULL) {
+            BIO_puts(bio_err, "Internal error: can't find key algorithm\n");
+            return NULL;
+        }
+        EVP_PKEY_asn1_get0_info(NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, &anam, ameth);
+        *palgnam = OPENSSL_strdup(anam);
 #ifndef OPENSSL_NO_ENGINE
-               if (tmpeng)
-                       ENGINE_finish(tmpeng);
+        ENGINE_finish(tmpeng);
+#endif
+    }
+
+    if (param != NULL) {
+        gctx = EVP_PKEY_CTX_new(param, keygen_engine);
+        *pkeylen = EVP_PKEY_bits(param);
+        EVP_PKEY_free(param);
+    } else {
+        gctx = EVP_PKEY_CTX_new_id(*pkey_type, keygen_engine);
+    }
+
+    if (gctx == NULL) {
+        BIO_puts(bio_err, "Error allocating keygen context\n");
+        ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    if (EVP_PKEY_keygen_init(gctx) <= 0) {
+        BIO_puts(bio_err, "Error initializing keygen context\n");
+        ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+        EVP_PKEY_CTX_free(gctx);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+#ifndef OPENSSL_NO_RSA
+    if ((*pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_RSA) && (keylen != -1)) {
+        if (EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_rsa_keygen_bits(gctx, keylen) <= 0) {
+            BIO_puts(bio_err, "Error setting RSA keysize\n");
+            ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+            EVP_PKEY_CTX_free(gctx);
+            return NULL;
+        }
+    }
 #endif
-               }
-
-       if (param)
-               {
-               gctx = EVP_PKEY_CTX_new(param, keygen_engine);
-               *pkeylen = EVP_PKEY_bits(param);
-               EVP_PKEY_free(param);
-               }
-       else
-               gctx = EVP_PKEY_CTX_new_id(*pkey_type, keygen_engine);
-
-       if (!gctx)
-               {
-               BIO_puts(err, "Error allocating keygen context\n");
-               ERR_print_errors(err);
-               return NULL;
-               }
-
-       if (EVP_PKEY_keygen_init(gctx) <= 0)
-               {
-               BIO_puts(err, "Error initializing keygen context\n");
-               ERR_print_errors(err);
-               return NULL;
-               }
-
-       if ((*pkey_type == EVP_PKEY_RSA) && (keylen != -1))
-               {
-               if (EVP_PKEY_CTX_set_rsa_keygen_bits(gctx, keylen) <= 0)
-                       {
-                       BIO_puts(err, "Error setting RSA keysize\n");
-                       ERR_print_errors(err);
-                       EVP_PKEY_CTX_free(gctx);
-                       return NULL;
-                       }
-               }
-
-       return gctx;
-       }
+
+    return gctx;
+}
 
 static int genpkey_cb(EVP_PKEY_CTX *ctx)
-       {
-       char c='*';
-       BIO *b = EVP_PKEY_CTX_get_app_data(ctx);
-       int p;
-       p = EVP_PKEY_CTX_get_keygen_info(ctx, 0);
-       if (p == 0) c='.';
-       if (p == 1) c='+';
-       if (p == 2) c='*';
-       if (p == 3) c='\n';
-       BIO_write(b,&c,1);
-       (void)BIO_flush(b);
-#ifdef LINT
-       p=n;
-#endif
-       return 1;
-       }
+{
+    char c = '*';
+    BIO *b = EVP_PKEY_CTX_get_app_data(ctx);
+    int p;
+    p = EVP_PKEY_CTX_get_keygen_info(ctx, 0);
+    if (p == 0)
+        c = '.';
+    if (p == 1)
+        c = '+';
+    if (p == 2)
+        c = '*';
+    if (p == 3)
+        c = '\n';
+    BIO_write(b, &c, 1);
+    (void)BIO_flush(b);
+    return 1;
+}
+
+static int do_sign_init(EVP_MD_CTX *ctx, EVP_PKEY *pkey,
+                        const EVP_MD *md, STACK_OF(OPENSSL_STRING) *sigopts)
+{
+    EVP_PKEY_CTX *pkctx = NULL;
+    int i;
+
+    if (ctx == NULL)
+        return 0;
+    if (!EVP_DigestSignInit(ctx, &pkctx, md, NULL, pkey))
+        return 0;
+    for (i = 0; i < sk_OPENSSL_STRING_num(sigopts); i++) {
+        char *sigopt = sk_OPENSSL_STRING_value(sigopts, i);
+        if (pkey_ctrl_string(pkctx, sigopt) <= 0) {
+            BIO_printf(bio_err, "parameter error \"%s\"\n", sigopt);
+            ERR_print_errors(bio_err);
+            return 0;
+        }
+    }
+    return 1;
+}
+
+int do_X509_sign(X509 *x, EVP_PKEY *pkey, const EVP_MD *md,
+                 STACK_OF(OPENSSL_STRING) *sigopts)
+{
+    int rv;
+    EVP_MD_CTX *mctx = EVP_MD_CTX_new();
+
+    rv = do_sign_init(mctx, pkey, md, sigopts);
+    if (rv > 0)
+        rv = X509_sign_ctx(x, mctx);
+    EVP_MD_CTX_free(mctx);
+    return rv > 0 ? 1 : 0;
+}
+
+int do_X509_REQ_sign(X509_REQ *x, EVP_PKEY *pkey, const EVP_MD *md,
+                     STACK_OF(OPENSSL_STRING) *sigopts)
+{
+    int rv;
+    EVP_MD_CTX *mctx = EVP_MD_CTX_new();
+    rv = do_sign_init(mctx, pkey, md, sigopts);
+    if (rv > 0)
+        rv = X509_REQ_sign_ctx(x, mctx);
+    EVP_MD_CTX_free(mctx);
+    return rv > 0 ? 1 : 0;
+}
+
+int do_X509_CRL_sign(X509_CRL *x, EVP_PKEY *pkey, const EVP_MD *md,
+                     STACK_OF(OPENSSL_STRING) *sigopts)
+{
+    int rv;
+    EVP_MD_CTX *mctx = EVP_MD_CTX_new();
+    rv = do_sign_init(mctx, pkey, md, sigopts);
+    if (rv > 0)
+        rv = X509_CRL_sign_ctx(x, mctx);
+    EVP_MD_CTX_free(mctx);
+    return rv > 0 ? 1 : 0;
+}